Dr Makio Miyagawa, Ambassador of Japan in Malaysia, held various positions in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. He was Chief of the Legal Desk, the Deputy Director of US-Japan Trade Division, Director of APEC Division and of the Asia Regional Policy Division. His previous postings include assignments to the Embassy of Japan in the UK and in Malaysia, and to the Japanese Mission in Geneva. He received his Doctor of Philosophy in International Relations from Oxford University, in 1989; he also obtained a Bachelor of Science, Aeronautical and Spacecraft Engineering from Tokyo University in 1974. He lectured in international relations and international law as a visiting professor at the National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies and at the University of Tokyo, while assigned as Director of the Japan Institute of International Affairs (JIIA). He has published numerous books and articles on economic sanctions and regional security, both in Japanese and English.